During 13-14 centuries there is two major power in Islamic world. Mongols that captured Iran, Iraq, central Asia and removed Abbasid caliphate and Mamluks that Captured Egypt, Syria and accepted the refugee Abbasid caliphate and turned Cairo to new Capital of Islamic world. They are enemies for more than sixty years and after three wars and long period of hostility, Finally, their peace treaty in 1322 was the beginning of trade between two countries. Mongols after their primary terrible invasion, during their reign had been influenced by Persian and Islamic culture, and tried to rebuild Persian textile production as main Ilkhanid dynasty economic thought. we can see major changes in Persian textile design during Ilkhanid period that roots from cultural change during Mongol invasion and their taste for Chinese art like limited, pale colors and complex motifs due to Immigration of many Chinese artists to Iran and Persian artist efforts to mix these new style with Iranian and Islamic motifs to create a specific Ilkhanid style in textiles. Mongols relationship with Yuan dynasty had an impact on changing Persian tradition of textile design in both motifs and repeated patterns. In other side Mamluks turned textile, especially Silk, as an important economic and political commodity. They had major textile traders of textile in Islamic and Europe Countries for more than three centuries. In many historical books, especially Muslim historians, emphasized on transferring Persian silk production techniques to Egypt and Syria after Persian weavers’ immigration in result of the Mongol invasion and restarting textile trades between countries, but there is no scientific paper that shows their empirical evidence of these influences. At a glance, we can see many evidence of Mamluk textiles that shows a composition of Chinese and Islamic or Iranian motifs or composition that show Ilkhanid textiles must be attend as a source of Mamluk textile design.
This paper tries to investigate the impact of Ilkhanid textile design, during these period, on Mamluk sultanate textile design to show how artists immigration, Diplomatic tributes and trade effects on transferring Persian Ilkhanid textile motifs and their repeated patterns on their contemporaneous Egyptian textiles. A mix method of Chronological, Descriptive- analytical and comparative research method used to show the correlation between historical evidences and changes in textile motifs and patterns. Textile samples are collected through textile museum websites.
Result shows that Mamluk textiles influenced by Ilkhanid textiles and some ornamental motifs like harpies and sphinx, two animal and tree of life, inscriptions, various arabesques patterns with Persian origins, Chinese lotus, peony, phoenix and cloud pattern and especially Persian textile compositions like Medallions as an original Sassanid pattern, repeated ogival frames surrounded main motifs and Surrounded stripes of small florals or geometric motifs and inscriptions that changed Egyptian traditional textile designs of Coptic and Fatimid period based on linear Composition of Inscription and medallions into a complex repeated patterns of Arabesques frames composed by inscriptions and ogival medallions with main pomegranate flower that known as an Ilkhanid important innovation in textile design style.